On 20 April 1792, therefore, they declared war on Austria.[XIV]. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces (gendarmes are career soldiers), and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces, it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned. Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area (with the exception of St. Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in 2007). [231] It is also a leader in civilian nuclear technology. Some authors of French medieval texts are unknown, such as Tristan and Iseult and Lancelot-Grail. [144], France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights. Myst GameSpot; 70. [88] Simultaneously France renounced the assimilation of immigrants, where they were expected to adhere to French traditional values and cultural norms. While it would have been really nice to see a few more PlayStation VR titles on the list, things look quite good on the other platforms. [140] Only 6 countries give women the same work rights as men. [334] Such residential castles were the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d'Amboise. A huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during the 18th century are displayed in the state-owned Musée du Louvre, such as Mona Lisa, also known as La Joconde. [34] The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened, and the Gauls continued to harass the region until 345 BC when they entered into a formal peace treaty with Rome. France is a secular country in which freedom of religion is a constitutional right. In addition to the submarine fleet, it is estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads,[172] of which around 50 are deployed by the Air and Space Force using the Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft, while around 10 are deployed by the French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft, which operate from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. Opération Chammal, France's military efforts to contain ISIS, killed over 1,000 ISIS troops between 2014 and 2015.[95][96]. In 1905, state secularism was officially established. This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks. In 2008, the INSEE (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) estimated that the total number of foreign-born immigrants was around 5 million (8% of the population), while their French-born descendants numbered 6.5 million, or 11% of the population. [216] Over 70% of new cars sold in 2004 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines. In 1848 general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy. [166] The organisation managing the French help is the French Development Agency, which finances primarily humanitarian projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD), High and Late Middle Ages (10th–15th century), UNESCO World Heritage Sites and protected areas, For information about regional languages see. Summers are short, cool and wet, while winters are moderately cold and damp. The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: the Republican Guard (Garde républicaine) which protects public buildings hosting major French institutions, the Maritime Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie maritime) serving as Coast Guard, the Provost Service (Prévôté), acting as the Military Police branch of the Gendarmerie. [185] As of 2016[update], the World Factbook ranked France seventh largest exporter. The Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, and New Caledonia continue to use the CFP franc[128] whose value is strictly linked to that of the euro. & dark grey)– in the European Union (green (Note the overseas department of French Guiana highlighted on the extreme lefthand side of the globe image.)). [238] Western Europe is now serviced by a network of TGV lines. • The warm-summer humid continental climate (Dfb) is found in all the mountainous regions of the Northern half of France between 500 and 1000 meters a.s.l. Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are considered as "poetic masterpieces",[350] Hugo's verse having been compared to that of Shakespeare, Dante and Homer. (Note: There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which indicates the population of the communes). The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Frankreich ist in 18 Regionen unterteilt, davon befinden sich 13 in Europa und fünf sind französische Überseegebiete (France d'outre-mer (FOM)) - Französisch-Guayana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte und Réunion.Bis zum 31. In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornaments. While the Louvre Palace has been for a long time a museum, the Musée d'Orsay was inaugurated in 1986 in the old railway station Gare d'Orsay, in a major reorganisation of national art collections, to gather French paintings from the second part of the 19th century (mainly Impressionism and Fauvism movements).[327][328]. In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead's version of process philosophy. [202] The most popular tourist sites include (annual visitors): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Château de Versailles (2.8 million), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million), Pont du Gard (1.5 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Mont Saint-Michel (1 million), Sainte-Chapelle (683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), and Carcassonne (362,000). Einwohner frankreich 2020 — alle ferientermine für frankreich 2020 sorgfältig recherchiert und tabellarisch Also rund 23'000 Menschen mehr. With a greater focus on marketing and manufacturing, new trends were established by Sonia Rykiel, Thierry Mugler, Claude Montana, Jean-Paul Gaultier and Christian Lacroix in the 1970s and 1980s. [22] Modern France is still named today Francia in Italian and Spanish, while Frankreich in German, Frankrijk in Dutch and Frankrike in Swedish all mean "Land/realm of the Franks". French education is centralized and divided into three stages: Primary, secondary, and higher education. France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×10^6 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction, of which 97% are overseas. . He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence. [448], The French Open, also called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris. [180], A member of the Group of Seven (formerly Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries, as of 2018[update], it is ranked as the world's tenth largest and the EU's second largest economy by purchasing power parity. [49] The French Crusaders also imported the French language into the Levant, making French the base of the lingua franca (litt. At the beginning of the 20th century, Cubism was developed by Georges Braque and the Spanish painter Pablo Picasso, living in Paris. By turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers at the Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged. There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes. Secondary education also consists of two phases. How to conduct European clinical trials from the Paris Region ? Teddy Riner has won ten World Championships gold medals, the first and only judoka to do so, and David Douillet has won four, making them respectively the first and third top judokas in the world in terms of gold medals. In addition to the 18 regions and 101 departments, the French Republic has five overseas collectivities (French Polynesia, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Wallis and Futuna), one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia), one overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands), and one island possession in the Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island). [354] Jean-Paul Sartre was also the first nominee in the committee's history to refuse the prize in 1964.[354]. It also made several important reforms (suffrage extended to women, creation of a social security system). Interactive tools, including maps, epidemic curves and other charts and graphics, with downloadable data, allow users to track and explore the latest trends, numbers and statistics at global, regional and country levels. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city … The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who suggested the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in 1903. The first is delivered through colleges (collège) and leads to the national certificate (Diplôme national du brevet). [223] The University of Paris, founded in the mid-12th century, is still one of the most important universities in the Western world. The Gothic architecture, originally named Opus Francigenum meaning "French work",[331] was born in Île-de-France and was the first French style of architecture to be copied in all Europe. [276], In 2014, the INSEE published a study which reported doubling of the number of Spanish immigrants, Portuguese and Italians in France between 2009 and 2012. [130] The Constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. France is also committed to protecting the environment: in 2018, France was ranked 2nd in the Environmental Performance Index (behind neighboring Switzerland), out of 180 countries ranked by Yale University in that study. There are more than 400 different varieties.[424][425]. Some historians consider the civil war to have lasted until 1796 with a toll of possibly 450,000 lives. Einwohner frankreich 2020 Top-Preise für Frankreich - Frankreich Riesenauswahl bei eBa . [272] The European Union allows free movement between the member states, although France established controls to curb Eastern European migration[citation needed], and immigration remains a contentious political issue. Mailingliste - Mehr sehen. André Thuilier, Histoire de l'université de Paris et de la Sorbonne, Paris, Nouvelle librairie de France, 1994, Burke, Peter, A social history of knowledge: from Gutenberg to Diderot, Malden: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2000, p. 17. In the same year, French companies invested $220 billion outside France, ranking France as the second largest outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the United States ($311 billion), and ahead of the UK ($111 billion), Japan ($128 billion) and Germany ($157 billion).[187][188]. The world's major co-operatives and mutual businesses", "La Bourse de Paris : une institution depuis 1724", "Embassy of France in Washington: Economy of France", "Germans Say Goodbye to the Mark, a Symbol of Strength and Unity", French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, "A Panorama of the agriculture and agri-food industries", "Un ministère au service de votre alimentation", "Annex 1: Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Aid, by Size-Class of Aid, Received in the Context of Direct Aid Paid to the Producers According to Council Regulation (EC) No 1782/2003 (Financial Year 2007)", "Les enjeux des industries agroalimentaires françaises", "Fréquentation des musées et des bâtiments historiques", "TEA/AECOM Attraction Attendance Report for 2009", "Tourism: The Loire Valley, an intoxicating destination for visitors", "Chateaux deluxe: 5 best Loire Valley castles", "Chiffres clés du transport Édition 2010", Ministère de l'Écologie, de l'Énergie, du Développement Durable et de la Mer, "TGV – The French High-speed Train Service", "Marseille : un grand port maritime qui ne demande qu'à se montrer", "Marseille – A French Pearl in the Mediterranean Sea", "Stanford Journal of International Relations, "The French Connection: Comparing French and American Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs, "Countries Generating The Most Nuclear Energy – Business Insider", "France at the heart of the Rosetta space mission: a unique technological challenge", "Démographie – Population au début du mois – France (inclus Mayotte à partir de 2014)", "Bilan démographique 2006 : un excédent naturel record", "People in the EU – statistics on demographic changes – Statistics Explained", "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", "Tableau 44 – Taux de fécondité générale par âge de la mère", "Évolution générale de la situation démographique, France", "Naissances selon le pays de naissance des parents 2010", "France's ethnic minorities: To count or not to count", "Les personnes originaires d'Afrique, des Dom-Tom et de la Turquie sont 5,5 millions dans l'Hexagone", "Europe's Minority Politicians in Short Supply", "In officially colorblind France, blacks have a dream – and now a lobby", "National strategy for Roma integration – European Commission – DG Justiceunknown label", "Flux d'immigration par continent d'origine", "Asylum Seekers, Violence and Health: A Systematic Review of Research in High-Income Host Countries", "aida – Asylum Information Database – Country Report: France", "Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance", "Enquêtes annuelles de recensement 2004 et 2005", "Turks and Moroccans top list of new EU citizens", "Qui sont les nouveaux immigrés qui vivent en France ? [139] Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech in the press are as old as 1881. Data from previous long-term budgets available for download. The association of France with fashion and style (French: la mode) dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV[386] when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe. [97][failed verification] The government is slowly corporatising the state sector and selling off holdings in France Télécom, Air France, as well as in the insurance, banking, and defense industries. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law, and administrative law. [198], Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognized processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports. Information on calls for proposals, funding programmes and application process, tendering process and opportunities. The country also hosted the 1960 European Nations' Cup, UEFA Euro 1984, UEFA Euro 2016 and 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup. In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world, but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt. As of 2009[update], the World Trade Organization (WTO) reported France was the world's sixth largest exporter and the fourth largest importer of manufactured goods. The Rhône divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue. Download data 2000-2019. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty, but his kingdom would not survive his death. Welches Team stellte in der Saison 2011/12 mit … France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest. [436] Several major tennis tournaments take place in France, including the Paris Masters and the French Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. Small and picturesque French villages are promoted through the association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (literally "The Most Beautiful Villages of France"). Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. • The subalpine climate (Dfc) is found in all the mountainous regions of the northern half of France between 1000 and 2000 meters a.s.l. Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. At this time there was a strong Gothic resurgence across Europe and in France; the associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. 31. Emerging victorious from said conflicts, disputes with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire soon followed during the Renaissance but were ultimately less successful. There has been no national conscription since 1997.[169]. Some of his verses have entered the popular language to become proverbs, such as "À l'œuvre, on connaît l'artisan. [204], With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera (French: Côte d'Azur), in Southeast France, is the second leading tourist destination in the country, after the Paris region. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory. Official Site of the Olympic Movement", "World Cup 2018: France beat Croatia 4-2 in World Cup final", 1984: Platini shines for flamboyant France, "Thierry Henry calls end to France career", "Change Seems Essential to Escape Extinction: Wimbledon: World's Most Loved Dinosaur", Official site of the French public service, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Countries and dependencies of South America, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=France&oldid=995185774, French-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in 1792, Articles with dead external links from March 2020, Articles with Dutch-language sources (nl), Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing potentially dated statements from November 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2020, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Articles containing Proto-Germanic-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles containing undetermined-language text, Articles needing additional references from October 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Articles with failed verification from February 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, Articles containing potentially dated statements from January 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2007, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, Articles with incomplete citations from January 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, State private property under the direct authority of the. loading . According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France. In 1958, the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic, which included a strengthened Presidency. La Convention UNESCO pour la diversité culturelle : vers un droit international culturel contraignant ? Mit Rücksichtnahme darauf, dass die Bevölkerung Frankreich Anfang des Jahres 65 422 778 Menschen zählte, betrug der. [127] These cantons are then divided into 36,658 communes, which are municipalities with an elected municipal council. [112], Forests account for 31 percent of France's land area—the fourth-highest proportion in Europe—representing an increase of 7 percent since 1990. In September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced King Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the French absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. French composers from the Romantic era included: Hector Berlioz (best known for his Symphonie fantastique), Georges Bizet (best known for Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed operas), Gabriel Fauré (best known for his Pavane, Requiem, and nocturnes), Charles Gounod (best known for his Ave Maria and his opera Faust), Jacques Offenbach (best known for his 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann), Édouard Lalo (best known for his Symphonie espagnole for violin and orchestra and his Cello Concerto in D minor), Jules Massenet (best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty, the most frequently staged are Manon (1884) and Werther (1892)) and Camille Saint-Saëns (he has many frequently-performed works, including The Carnival of the Animals, Danse macabre, Samson and Delilah (Opera), Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso and his Symphony No. World War I left 1.4 million French soldiers dead, 4% of its population. Summers are hot and dry, while winters are mild and wet. In the early 1990s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia. [352] Important writers of the 20th century include Marcel Proust, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul Sartre. Since the Middle Ages, France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms); one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years.[135]. Among the most important French artists of the century are Édith Piaf, Georges Brassens, Léo Ferré, Charles Aznavour and Serge Gainsbourg. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France. [134] The Assembly has the power to dismiss the government; thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government. [232][233][234] France was the third nation, after the former USSR and the United States, to launch its own space satellite and remains the biggest contributor to the European Space Agency (ESA). 2: Stroke Ischemic stroke (due to lack of blood flow) or Intracranial hemorrhage (hemorrhage in brain due to bleeding). The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. Although the revolt was a political failure (as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before) it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after. [438], Similar to the Olympics, France introduced Olympics for the deaf people (Deaflympics) in 1924 with the idea of a French deaf car mechanic, Eugène Rubens-Alcais who paved the way to organise the inaugural edition of the Summer Deaflympics in Paris. In early September, Parisians, infuriated by the Prussian army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, murdered between 1,000 and 1,500 prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons. The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of European and world history. Francis Poulenc's best known works are his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919), the ballet Les biches (1923), the Concert champêtre (1928) for harpsichord and orchestra, the opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957), and the Gloria (1959) for soprano, choir and orchestra. Érik Satie was a key member of the early-20th-century Parisian avant-garde, best known for his Gymnopédies. France has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)[170] and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.